Државна универзална робна кућа. Фото-галерија
Государственный универсальный магазин. Фотогалерея
( The State Department Store GUM – the abbreviation for “State Department Store”; until 1921: Upper Shopping Malls) is a large shopping complex (department store) in the center of Moscow, which occupies an entire quarter of the “Kitai Gorod” ( Chinatown) and faces the main facade of Red Square.
The building, built in 1893 in the pseudo-Russian style, is an architectural monument of federal significance and is in federal ownership.
On the site of the dilapidated shops of the XVIII century under Catherine II, the design of a grandiose shopping center in the style of classicism began.
State Department Store logo
The project was developed by
Giacomo Quarenghi himself, but the construction was carried out by city architects in a hurry and was not brought to the end. After the fire of 1812, another classicist, Osip Ivanovich Beauvais ( Giuseppe Bova), rebuilt the shopping arcade.
Giacomo Quarenghi (1744 – 1817) was the foremost and most prolific practitioner of neoclassical architecture in Imperial Russia, particularly in Saint Petersburg. He brought into vogue an original monumental style, of Palladian inspiration, which was a reference for many architects who worked in Russia. He has been described as “the last of the great architects of Italy”.
Osip Ivanovich Beauvais /Giuseppe Bova/ – (1784-1834) – Russian architect. It is famous for the reconstruction of Moscow after the fire of 1812. The role of Beauvais in creating the appearance of Moscow can only be compared with the contribution of Russia to the architecture of St. Petersburg. Created mainly in the style of classicism.
The complex of buildings of the Upper Trading Rows was built according to the project of architect A.N. Pomerantsev, with the participation of architect P.P. Shchekotov, engineers A.F. translucent structures. The participation of V. G. Shukhov in the design of the Upper Trading Rows is disputed.
The main building was placed parallel to the Kremlin wall, the main entrance to the ranks was arranged in the center of the facade on Red Square. The back of the main building overlooks Vetoshny Lane, where there is another independent corps of rows.
The main building was built in the form of a passage – a type of commercial building popular in European architecture of the second half of the 19th century, where shops are placed in tiers on the sides of a wide gallery passage with a glazed ceiling. The building consists of 16 buildings connected by three longitudinal and three transverse galleries (“lines”), above which there are light lamps.
The construction is designed in a pseudo-Russian style, the decor elements are borrowed from Russian monuments of the patterned era, and the twin towers above the main entrance are consonant with the completion of the neighboring building of the Historical Museum. The giant three-story building, consisting of three longitudinal passages with deep basements, housed more than a thousand stores.
The design of the overlapping lines – arched steel trusses with glazing of sixteen-meter spans; By the beginning of the 21st century, only about 30 original “Shukhov” steel structures were preserved. In addition to the passages, three large halls are arranged in the building. Finnish granite, Tarusa-marble, sandstone are used in the exterior decoration.
In 1923, the State Department Store (GUM) was opened in the building, and was run by the People’s Commissar of the RSFSR.
Address: 109012, Moscow, Red Square 3 Metro: Teatralnaya, Okhotny Ryad, Revolution Square.
Photo of Red Square. Around the 80s of the XIX century
In 1934-1936, a competition was held for the construction projects of the high-rise building of the People’s Commissariat of Industry. Some of them provided for the demolition of the GUM, along with most of the neighboring buildings. But another project won – the construction of a skyscraper on the site of Zaryadye.
Aerial view from “Kitai Gorod”. In the foreground – GUM, behind – Red Square and the Kremlin.
Map of Moscow by Matthäus Merian Kitay-gorod selected (with yellow color)
Panorama of the lines. Second line
In 1952-1953, the building was restored and in 1953 the State Department Store was reopened in it. In the 1970s, another restoration of the building began, which was completed by 1985.
Kitai Gorod (Chinatown). Moscow.
In 1990, the store was corporatized, and in 1992 – privatized. Despite the fact that the store has ceased to be state, the name “GUM” is preserved and is used along with the old name – “Upper Trading Rows”.
Panorama of the lines. Third line
In 1997-2001 and 2011-2012, fragmentary restoration work was carried out on the facades, in the vestibules, in separate trading rooms of the building, which were carried out according to the design of the restoration architect M. B. Kanaev and under the scientific supervision of G. V. Mudrov.
GUM. Fountain. During the first stage of restoration, the building was illuminated with lines of light bulbs, emphasizing the architectural elements of the facade and the silhouette of the building.
In 2012, on the basement floor between the first and third lines of the GUM, near the entrances from Nikolskaya Street, a historical public restroom was opened with interior decoration recreated from archives of pre-revolutionary drawings.
It is leased until 2059 by the Russian retail company Bosco di Ciliegi, which specializes in the sale of luxury goods. The lease is extended without a tender; its value is a commercial secret by court order.
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